Participation and Training on Project Management

ZOPP - Zielorientierte Projektplanung (project planning oriented by objectives)

Short description

ZOPP is a methodology for the conception and planning of projects which can be used in the framework of participation training and coaching in order to support initiatives and project groups.

Origin and context

ZOPP was developed by the German official development agency GTZ in the 1970s. The method was adapted for youth trainings by the German NGO Politischer Arbeitskreis Schulen e.V. Zeitpfeil e.V. contributed to the further adaptation of the method and uses it in participation trainings with different target groups.

Aims and objectives

The methodology can be used to support groups during the conception of projects and initiatives. Its objective is to facilitate a common sense on a project with realistic and concrete aims contributing to the solution of a relevant problem. The method therefore focuses on the conception of projects which provides the basis for the definition of a concrete action plan.

Theoretical base


The methodology can be used during trainings and seminars. It consists of different steps and instruments which can be combined according to the need and demand of a group. These instruments can then be used by the group as a tool for project monitoring and communication after the training.
The standard cycle of a ZOPP-training consists of the following steps:
1. Problem analyses (tools: tree of problems, role plays, ...)
2. Analysis of objectives (tools: tree of objectives, logframe)
3. Analysis of stakeholders and ressources (tools: SWOP-method, argumentation training)
4. Definition of milestones (Work Breakdown Structure)
5. Action plan (tools: W-questions, template)
6. Monitoring and revision of the cycle